If quoting or using this article by any other means, a link back to it must be included. A credit to the author and original publication must be provided as well, by adding the following reference: Litvinenko V. S. Digital Economy as a Factor in the Technological Development of the Mineral Sector/Natural Resources Research, №28, Т 28, 2019. С 1-21. Abstract If quoting or using this article by any other means, a link back to it must be included. A credit to the author and original publication must be provided as well, by adding the following reference: Litvinenko V. S. Digital Economy as a Factor in the Technological Development of the Mineral Sector/Natural Resources Research, №28, Т 28, 2019. С 1-21. Saint-Petersburg Mining University, Saint Petersburg, Russia V. S. Litvinenko Abstract This article describes the impact of the global digital economy on the technological development of the mineral sector in the world. Due to the different specifics of the legislative bases of the investigated regions, such as the USA, China, EU, and Africa, the development of digital transformation is presented on the example of the Russian Federation in the context of world trends. The article presents an analysis of the possibilities of using straight-through digital technology in prospecting, design, development, and use of mineral resources. It describes a structure promoting the development of applied digital technology through research–education centers and international competence centers. This structure would allow forming the new competencies for personnel working in the digital economy. The underfunding of the information and computing infrastructure could be a significant challenge to the digital transformation of the economy. Creating the conditions for a reliable and secure process of generating, storing, and using data is the basis for protection from the cybersecurity hazard that could act as a brake on technology advancement. This article discusses the organizational and technological priorities of the development of the mineral resource sector on the example of the Russian Federation. The challenges for the mineral resource complex resulting from global changes can be taken on through technological changes of the industry. The article gives a thorough description of issues related to technological developments in the raw materials sector, oil refining industry, development of integrated and advanced mineral processing systems, and the use of household and industrial wastes. The research presents basic technology contributing to sustainable development, starting from exploration and production forecasting and up to sustainable planning and distribution of material and energy resources based on real-time data. It also pays special attention to the possibilities of creating digital platforms for the mineral sector. Digital integration, combining research areas, personnel, processes, users, and data will create conditions for scientific and technological achievements and breakthroughs, providing scientific and economic developments in related industries and, above all, in the global mineral and raw materials market..